Ceph iops calculator

The problem with using IOPS as the primary performance metric is that you often aren’t told under what conditions the published IOPS figures were derived. Help. – Powered by Math StorageReview. Background. If you copy a file several GB large you should be able to determine which one is accurate. Ceph FS Ceph provides a distributed object store and file system which, in turn, relies on a resilient and scalable storage model (RADOS) using clusters of commodity hardware. The SNIA is a non-profit global organization dedicated to developing standards and education programs to advance storage and information technology. Describe data . He also have extensive knowledge on open source storage technology like gluserfs, ceph and zfs. Cooler and quieter with excellent power efficiency (Watts/TB) and no-compromise performance, the Ultrastar He8 lays the foundation for future growth in massive scale-out environments. a simple calculator By now you will have seen the announcement of our intent to acquire Carbon Black. After ZFS uses it, you will have 961 GiB of available space. By Sébastien Han. Solution Overview. 1 Deploying Red Hat Ceph Storage Clusters Based on Supermicro Storage Servers Document Purpose The purpose of this document is to characterize and compare the perfor-mance of Red Hat Ceph Storage on various Supermicro servers. 0 is a full-function OpenStack Pubic, Private and Managed Private cloud. This guide is designed to be used as a self-training course covering ceph. The old standby for reasonably fast block storage, the 2TBx24 chassis was ubiquitous. Get the scalability, intelligence and cloud integration you need to unlock the value of your data. How it was tested & measured 3. 2K RPM SATA 6Gb/s 512e 256MB Cache 3. Ceph's CRUSH algorithm liberates client access limitations imposed by centralizing the data table mapping typically used in scale-out storage. The Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) is a non-profit corporation formed to establish, maintain and endorse standardized benchmarks and tools to evaluate performance and energy efficiency for the newest generation of computing systems. ZFS uses 1/64 of the available raw storage for metadata. ) • Refine and tune this until desired performance  Ceph PGs per Pool Calculator. Support Erasure Coding pools, which maintain multiple copies of an object. Collectively it’s clear that we’ve all had it with the cost of storage, particularly the cost to maintain and operate storage systems. Digitalocean has managed to captured the low end of the spectrum for people looking to run a few servers. Oracle Linux Premier Support includes the latest, modern cloud native tools that are fully compliant with the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) standards. Generate commands that create pools. Is it bad? How good or bad is it? During the article, I will do my best to give you the best possible understand of how Ceph works internally. 7 MS Server 2016, Ceph, vSAN, ZFS) - Vendor / OEM: Adaptec PMC | Model: ASR-71605 PN: Controller Type: Storage SAS Host Bus: PCIe x8 Interface: 4x SFF-8643 6 Gb Cache: 1GB RAID Level: 0, 1, 1E, 5, 6, 10, 50, 60, HBA mode passthrough für ZFS, Ceph, MS The basic math for a 64 node cluster = ~93700 IOPS / node but as I have seen this benchmark from Intel showing 6. SUSE Security Update: Secu A VPS is a Virtual Private Server for hosting websites (e-commerce, content, media, etc. Raid 10 can sustain a TWO disk failures if its one drive in each mirror set that fails. 45drives uses Ceph alot, couldn’t they develop a Ceph plugin for FreeNAS, or work together with iX to implement it. Here are some of the common deployment mistakes and their solutions. 5 inches 12Gbps 7. When an application writes data to Ceph using a block device, Ceph automatically stripes and replicates the data across the cluster. 9999% availability with the best all-flash capacity per TB in the industry. You are confused between Raid 10 and Raid 0+1. 2 Experience the industry's best in IOPS/watt by optimizing your storage with Seagate's PowerBalance feature. Users can provision volumes of different capacities with varying IOPS and throughput guarantees. Innovative Helium Design. back Ceph Storage HA Cluster - 3x HP Proliant DL380 Gen9 + Arista 40GbE switch High Availability Converged HCI Proxmox Ceph vmware HyperV The combined Excelero/Mellanox performance delivered 8,000 IOPS per virtual machine, compared to 400 IOPS per VM with Ceph, such that teuto. 3. You are almost guaranteed to run out of Tintri controls each application automatically, so you don’t have to. How do I monitor containers? The Datadog Agent runs in a container alongside any number of other containers on a host. Instructions. Network Attached Storage (NAS) for home and business, Synology is dedicated to providing DiskStation NAS that offers RAID storage, storage for virtualization, backup, NVR, and mobile app support. The storage is fairly achievable and a number of solutions existing that are specific to CCTV storage, standard server storage does not really apply here due to the IOPS and intensive nature of storing video in realtime and handling read requests for monitoring and playback, but looking at the size of the storage required you are going to need a few of these! The storage is fairly achievable and a number of solutions existing that are specific to CCTV storage, standard server storage does not really apply here due to the IOPS and intensive nature of storing video in realtime and handling read requests for monitoring and playback, but looking at the size of the storage required you are going to need a few of these! VDI Calculator, as we can see from the screenshot, has been sponsored by few VDI partners, like Atlantis Ilio, which is a name that ESX Virtualization readers knows, because I’ve wrote about their VDI acceleration solutions in the past – Fastest Virtual Desktop Experience – Atlantis ILIO Persistent VDI 4. net now recommends the Excelero-based teutoStack Cloud For years the old paradigm has held true. 2 GB/s and 2. You can choose between local storage and network storage (NVMe SSD RAID or Ceph). Signed-off-by: Jin Cai caijin. Confirm your understanding of the fields by reading through the Key below. Whoami. It covers the  commitment. Get down into the “platter chatter” territory – in the most extreme case, 4K random I/O – and you’ll discover you’re in an entirely different world. Delta Read IOPS (%) – Percentage of “Delta Steady State IOPS” to be read operations. A place to discuss servers, storage and networking. Ceph is the number one Open Source Software-defined Storage solution for scale-out applications. Raid 10 is always referred to as raid 10 never as 1+0. Testing for both Swift and Cinder is supported on a Ceph storage platform, via LIO for Cinder and RGW for Swift. Thanks OSIRIS at Van Andel Institute will enable VAI bioinformaticians to work with MSU researchers to better understand Parkinson’s disease and cancer, and will allow access to VAI researchers with MSU appointments to access the computational resources at ICER. Many Ceph users have engaged us for Ceph OpenStack performance validation. DAS: In the Beginning. 33x 1. You can abuse ceph in all kinds of ways and it will recover, but when it runs out of storage really bad things happen. 0. Disk performance and throughput tests. 0 – desktops running in RAM. View More Drobo Solutions Learn More About Your Drobo View More Win a Drobo Enter your email address to join the world of Drobo Win a Drobo Enter your email address to […] Breakthrough Performance The Intel® Solid-State Drive Data Center Family for PCIe* brings extreme data throughput directly to Intel® Xeon® processors with up to six times faster data transfer speed than 6 Gbps SAS/SATA SSDs. The companion “Red Hat Ceph Storage Hardware Selection Guide” provides sample hardware configurations sized to specific workloads. Store your assets on a Swift or S3 compatible object storage. hyper converged infrastructure; high performance computing; software defined storage; hardware failure predictions & resource monitoring; server monitoring Integrations. As this is a 20. What performance can you expect from Ceph cluster in terms of latency, read and write throughput and IOPS in some mid (or even small) size(15TB) cluster with 10G ethernet? Point is that we keep comparing Ceph with enterprise storage solution( like EMC Unity 300 or 600). 2. Storage Spaces Direct overview. Cloud Infrastructure Services Introducing Oracle ZFS Storage ZS7-2. Select a "Ceph Use Case" from the drop   16 Apr 2018 Hi everybody! OpenStack Summit 2018 is quickly closing in and Micron has a new reference architecture to support OpenStack™ cloud storage  17 Feb 2016 Ceph can be used for block or object storage and different workloads. Finally, I ran a write RADOS bench locally with a concurrency of 1 on a pool with a replica size of 1 during 300 seconds. We're the creators of the Elastic (ELK) Stack -- Elasticsearch, Kibana, Beats, and Logstash. The course is aimed at engineers and administrators that want to gain familiarization with ceph quickly. At CES 2012, OCZ Technology demonstrated the R4 CloudServ PCIe SSDs capable of reaching transfer speeds of 6. com offers in-depth news coverage and detailed reviews for hard drives, SSDs, NAS units, other storage hardware, and software for consumer and enterprise markets. 1 The performance of a single drive from the Intel SSD Data Center Family for PCIe, specifically the Intel® Solid-State Drive Data Center P3700 Series (460K IOPS), can Achieve IT transformation with the Dell EMC PowerEdge portfolio. Set values for all pools. Join GitHub today. The servers also act like KVM hosts, so they are not dedicated to Ceph. Optimal So basically 138. . Ceph's RADOS Block Device (RBD) also integrates with Kernel-based Virtual Machines (KVMs). It is the culmination of several years of work executing on our vision and strategy for security. [0-2]$" --parallel 2019/03/11 16:53: 58 Calculating objects 2019/03/11 16:54:07 Benchmark started 2019/03/11  in hot path (issue#24820, pr#23407, "Yan, Zheng"); mds: calculate load by New command to track throughput and IOPS statistics, also available in ceph -s  13 Jul 2016 Over the last year, the Ceph world drew me in. Take advantage of up to 30 Gbps Ethernet and 100 Gbps InfiniBand networks. The first part is a gentle introduction to ceph and will serve as a primer before tackling more advanced concepts which are covered in the latter part of the document. com Free Advice This article focused light on a demonstration of utilizing SPDK storage framework from Intel for generating high-performance SSD transmission of data with the OpenStack based system and NVMe over fabrics. AWS has captured an enormous market. 5x 1. See the Ceph’s Storage Stragegies Guide for details about defining storage strategies for your Ceph use case(s) and use these recommendations to help define your host requirements. 2 / 4) * 1024 IOPS = 19. This document provides a reference architecture for deploying Cloudera Enterprise including CDH on Red Hat’s OpenStack Platform (OSP) 11. 2. PM1633a, PM1725a, PM963, SM963, PM863a. Optional Features You can: 1. You'll still have to pay for bigger machines. We recommend using other hosts for processes that utilize your data cluster (e. At the same time it includes optimizations 14 Feb 2018 On 2018-02-14 20:14, Steven Vacaroaia wrote: > Hi, > > It is very useful to "set up expectations" from a performance perspective > > I have a  Ceph: Safely Available Storage Calculator. Ceph: Safely Available Storage Calculator. Status Ceph has been used for the Glance image service since fall 2013, and the Cinder volume The latest testing of InfiniFlash System IF150 by Sandisk with Red Hat Ceph Storage has shown it can provide more than one million random read IOPS – opening up a whole new set of potential With this fix, automatic calculation of PGs is disabled and the Ceph PG calculator is used to calculate the PG values per OSD to keep the cluster in healthy state. WAF(Write amplification Factor) affects the overall performance. “Ceph” For Use in Cloud Services Testing with the real-world usage scenario using storage servers fitted with Intel® Xeon® processor E5 family CPUs White Paper Intel® Xeon® Processor E5 Family Performance Testing of Object-Based Block Storage Using Ceph Add max_iops(default value 0 means unlimited) image metadata. Unlike S3, these volumes can be mounted as network attached storage to EC2 instances and have an independent persistence lifecycle; that is, they can be made to persist even after the EC2 instance has been shut down. Everything is working OK at the moment but there are a few problems in terms of performance, capacity and also I am very aware that when I set it I was still learning and as such it is probably not set up as well as it could be. In preparation for this year’s Microsoft Ignite show (Micron is a sponsor of the event), my team has been running tests using the early builds of Microsoft’s Fall Update 2017 of Server Core. Attach additional volumes baked by Ceph RBDs or mount local SSDs for latency critical applications. To convert the 76. This is a major milestone for VMware and for the security industry at large. 5 Red Hat ® Enterprise Linux 7. 1 * 1024 What we now know #1 • RBD is not suitable for IOPS heavy workloads: – Realistic expectations: • 100 IOPS per VM (OSD with HDD disks) • 10K IOPS per VM (OSD with SSD disks, pre-Giant Ceph) • 10-40 ms latency expected and accepted • high CPU load on OSD nodes at high IOPS (bumping up CPU requirements) • Object storage for tenants tions for deploying Red Hat Ceph Storage on a range of Supermicro storage servers. With parallel access and higher IOPS (input/output operations per second), NVMe drives can handle operations that would bring an HDD to its knees. Obviously 2 disks could fail within that week, but with RAID 6 even that is okay. ☁ ~ French . can stripe ebs iops to get iops that want - 10x1000iops have 10k iops raid 0 - data intense db thrashing solution Each Ceph OSD Daemon checks the heartbeat of other Ceph OSD Daemons every 6 seconds by default, which is configurable of course. Our systems start at 10 TB usable and can grow online in the PB range. Q: What is converged cloud? A: Converged infrastructure is the hardware and infrastructure Storage TCO calculator - next steps - Improvement the scope of information analysed for disk servers:-use real-life values instead of catalog ones wherever possible - your input needed! - develop models for simulating the power usage, MB/s and IOPS, - based on the existing heuristics - supported by real life observations collected by NRENs This is the point of maintenance. admin. While RBD and RGW have been in use OSNEXUS Community Forum is an open forum for asking any questions you may have to the community of users using the QuantaStor Software Defined Storage platform. Recommendations 3. In this article, we’ll explore the history of enterprise storage and data center technology in order to gain a more comprehensive view of this rapidly changing marketplace. 因为搭建ceph目的是用于运行虚拟机,前面段时间测试过ceph,出现里一些问题,比如说一个节点(服务器)断开,导致别的节点大量读写数据,cpu负载过高; 服务器时间不同,导致ceph数据不一致; 最严重到是所有节点关掉后再启动起来,ceph不能运行,可怕到是上面到数据也全部丢失。 Just now I came across two articles from one corporate blog about clouds - one about Kubernetes, and the second was an attempt to measure performance using a technique that seemed doubtful to me (spoiler - not for nothing). 2016 The Ceph OSD Daemon's journal, however, can lead to spiky performance with short spurts of high-speed writes followed by periods without  7 Dec 2015 We look at the default Ceph pool created with Proxmox's base installation and make Here is the result of our primary pool in the calculator. 5 The pricing calculator does not account for all available discounts. 3 Mar 2014 Before measuring Ceph's Object Store performance, we establish a baseline for the expected maximum performance by measuring the  ceph-gobench is benchmark for ceph which allows you to measure the speed/ iops of each osd - rumanzo/ceph-gobench. Ceph Performand and Benchmarking. A performance tier using Red Hat® Ceph Storage and NVMe SSDs can now be deployed in OpenStack, supporting the bandwidth, latency, and IOPs requirements of high-performance workloads and use cases such as distributed MySQL databases, Telco nDVR long-tail content retrieval, and financial services. Customers are guaranteed 90% capacity savings across storage and backup combined. See Their Experiences. 2 Agenda 1. Ceph Overview a. Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller H730P 12Gb/s PCI Express SAS RAID controller **See our website for moreSAS Products, SAS + SATA RAID! Supermicro NexentaStor Solutions. It is important to pre-calculate workload requirements and set the appropriate There are some key differences we think set collectd apart. Some trees, such as file system trees and log trees, have a variable number of instances, each of which is given its own object id. For Exchange 2016 we again see improvements in the storage engine, driving down the IOPS requirements. g. It needs less hardware, provides impressive performance, end-to-end data integrity and support. Its major differentiated features include VPC networking based on Neutron, high performance provisioned IOPS of block storage based on Ceph and a user-friendly console. The performance problem. Storage Networking Industry Association. We are happy to hear any feedbacks or comments. I have a small server environment in which I am running some virtual servers via Microsoft Hyper-V. 2 release for All-Flash deployments. Hi all, A small post to give some feedback about speed, because Veeam is all about speed Since I won the 2012 speed contest last week at the french Veeam Experts club, Pierre-Francois@Veeam advised me to post that screenshot on the forum, so here I am. However, as a guide, we would allocate 3 GB memory (based on 50 users) for the hypervisor Table3MemoryrequirementsforStoreVirtualVSAdisks Totalvirtualizedcapacity TotalmemoryrequirementinGB TotalAOmemoryrequirementinGB <=500MB 4 4 500MB–4TB 5 5 Overall a nice article we may want to include the below points as well Page file can be moved to another drive and dump configured to dedicated drive if we have an option, since post 2008, page file is not a mandate to be on the OS drive. Red Hat Ceph Storage is an enterprise open source platform that provides unified software-defined storage on standard, economical servers and disks. SwiftStack enables you to do more with storage. Escape to the benefits of scale-out data protection and management with Commvault HyperScale. The Ceph PGs (Placement Groups) per Pool Calculator application helps you: 1. 3 Ceph Overview 4. ). Ceph is only as good as the network you give it If we do “ceph osd set noout” to prevent Ceph from trying to recover during a network outage, fix the network, then unset noout, Ceph would be fine You have to catch this problem before monitors run amok. What’s an integration? See Introduction to Integrations. Generally, we recommend running Ceph daemons of a specific type on a host configured for that type of daemon. Dell EMC Ready Architecture for Red Hat Ceph Storage 3. In that instance, IOPS figures will be, well, stunningly awesome. Share this item with your network: Hit the app-data gap? HPE Nimble Storage flash arrays and solutions with predictive analytics ensure fast, reliable access to data for data center and cloud applications. caij@alibaba-inc. Supermicro and Nexenta storage solutions allow enterprise IT departments to transform their storage infrastructure, increase flexibility and agility, simplify management and dramatically reduce costs without compromising availability, reliability, or Dell PowerEdge RAID Controller H730P 12Gb/s PCI Express SAS RAID controller **See our website for moreSAS Products, SAS + SATA RAID! Supermicro NexentaStor Solutions. For years, it looked like flash would be relegated to I have a cluster of servers, each of them having 128GB or RAM and 6 x 2TB spinning disks dedicated for BlueStore OSDs. I believe it is well known now but let me re-explain the concept again. Tintri controls each application automatically, so you don’t have to. We use the RAID calculator RAID-5, 6 or Ceph storage pool with 6+3 erasure coding, will be Hi! Storage Spaces – Win 2012 technology Storage Spaces Direct – available only in Win 2016 datacenter questions: 1) Does Storage Spaces available in both Win 2012 $32 for 12 monthsopens a installment calculator layer * Seagate ST12000NM0007 12TB 7. The load on our Ceph cluster constantly increases, because of a higher number of Virtual Machines running everyday. Testing by Red Hat and Supermicro (and also by Intel) showed that Ceph can support many IOPS using 10GbE, but if you have enough IOPS per server (as Intel did), you can still exceed 10GbE capabilities and need to either upgrade the network or spread the IOPS across more servers. • When using . Let IT Central Station and our comparison database help you with your research. 2K RPM Enterprise SAS 512E HDD - Brand New Build a better world with data. So far, we have installed Ceph on all the cluster nodes. drive is able to achiev e 175 IOPS. Incoming and outgoing traffic is shown separately. Microsoft started discussing a new feature of Windows Server 2016 called Storage Spaces Direct at Microsoft Ignite 2015. 2 AIX disk queue depth tuning for performance. Trace requests from end to end across distributed systems Track app performance with auto-generated service overviews Graph and So, that's 5k terabytes. That’s because you’re not struggling for IOPS. The topic of increasing the productivity of operating systems and searching for bottlenecks is gaining tremendous popularity. Why Storage Spaces Direct Won Out Over 6 Alternatives. The R740 is a general-purpose workhorse optimized for workload acceleration. 26 Sep 2016 One such aspect is how fast is your server based on disk performance (IOPS – Input Output per second) and how do you measure its  11 Sep 2018 But Ceph is still used in our project and it is possible that it will be used in . In this article we will talk about a single tool for finding these very places using the example of block stack work in Linux and one case of the host shutdown. Some just need a few pointers to iron some minor glitches, but some are in really bad shape. Calculate suggested PG Count per pool and total PG Count in Ceph. Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016. Re: IOPS, Throughput, Bandwidth Relation 2 GigaBits/sec vs. 4 million IOPS. Deterministic object placement. StorPool’s architecture is streamlined in order to deliver fast and reliable block storage. I would say that’s fine since FIO ran for 43GB and the ceph osd bench only wrote 1GB. same storage overhead 27% more IOPS same reconstruction IO 11% less storage overhead RAID6 4+2 LRC 12+3+1 LRC 6+2+1 storage overhead 1. The only way I've managed to ever break Ceph is by not giving it enough raw storage to work with. How I can calculate total usable ceph storage space. This information QD is very helpful for me understand design part of vmware storage and infra. 0 VMware® 6. Something like, in last X seconds there were: 5 iops 4K, 10 iops 8K, 20 iops 16K Exchange 2010 required far fewer IOPS for a given mailbox count than Exchange 2007 or 2003 did, and Exchange 2013 improved on this even further. These are measures of performance and efficiency, which are becoming increasingly important. Storage Spaces Direct uses industry-standard servers with local-attached drives to create highly available, highly scalable software-defined storage at a fraction of the cost of traditional SAN or NAS arrays. 96 €. A presentation created with Slides. 从上一篇文章: io系统性能之一:衡量性能的几个指标 的计算中我们可以看到一个15k转速的磁盘在随机读写访问的情况下iops竟然只有140左右,但在实际应用中我们却能看到很多标有5000iops甚至更高的存储系统,有这么大iops的存储系统怎么来的呢?这就要归结于 Hit enter to search. All major RAID card vendors recommend that you run weekly volume checks, which compare all data to all parity data which ensures that if a rebuild is needed, your data is 100% sound. 5" SAS 12Gb/s 7200rpm at the best price » Same / Next Day Delivery WorldWide -- FREE Business Quotes ☎Call for pricing +44 20 8288 8555 sales@span. Results a. 4MB/sec for FIO. So, the vendor could publish IOPS figures that were derived from a 100% read workload with 4K blocks. Highly Available, Unified Storage Solutions for Enterprise and Cloud Applications. vSAN Health Service – This provides integrated hardware compatibility checks, performance monitoring, storage capacity reporting, and diagnostics directly from VMware vCenter Server®. (BZ#1366577, BZ#1375538) * Issuing a command to compact its data store during a rolling upgrade renders the Ceph monitors unresponsive. Oracle Linux can run anywhere: in Oracle Cloud, Oracle Cloud at Customer, on premise, or on other public clouds. Currently there is very few options to scale a NAS other than UP, would be nice to have an option with horisontal scaling too. At the same time, the relative cost of the load balancing and S3 backups is quite low. To see the solution brief from Red Hat: SSD Throughput, Latency and IOPS Explained – Learning To Run With Flash Robert Cook July 16, 2014 24 Comments As fast as SSDs have found mainstream consumer use, they are unfortunately grouped in the same picture as a hard drive, if only for the fact that they are seen as storage and little more. Some places run daily volume checks in off hours. ; Adjust the values in the "Green" shaded fields below. Monitor, troubleshoot, and optimize application performance. Partly because of my taste for distributed systems, but also because I think Ceph represents a  24 Mar 2015 A series of posts about my learning path of Ceph Storage, from basics to advanced uses. It can grow online, without interruption and in small steps – one drive, one server and one network interface at a time. Much like the Hadoop platform, OpenStack is comprised of a number of related projects to control pools of storage, processing, and networking resources within a data center, and to build a multi-datacenter private cloud infrastructure. 2014 volumes are throttled to 100 IOPS read and write and 80 MB/s read and write. ReFS is not a direct replacement for NTFS, and is missing some underlying NTFS features, but is designed to be (as the name suggests) a more resilient file system for extremely large amounts of data. 5" HDD Sign in to check out Check out as guest Hi! Storage Spaces – Win 2012 technology Storage Spaces Direct – available only in Win 2016 datacenter questions: 1) Does Storage Spaces available in both Win 2012 $32 for 12 monthsopens a installment calculator layer * Seagate ST12000NM0007 12TB 7. In this fofth This machine will run any command against the Ceph cluster itself. For one, it's written in C for performance and portability, allowing it to run on systems without scripting language or cron daemon, such as embedded systems. DigitalOcean acknowledges that there is some variability and complexity in other providers’ pricing. What it is all about : If you think or discuss about Ceph , the most common question strike to your mind is “ What Hardware Should I Select For My CEPH Storage Cluster ? ” and yes if you really thought of this question in your mind , congratulations you seems to be serious about ceph technology and You should be because CEPH IS THE FUTURE OF STORAGE. Adaptec ASR-71605 16-Port 6G SAS/SATA PCIe x8 3. Killing the Storage Unicorn: Purpose-Built ScaleIO Spanks Multi-Purpose Ceph on Performance. 15 per IOPS and HDDs range from $1 to $4 Delta Steady State IOPS – Number disk IO operations per second in steady state. Red Hat Ceph Storage 1. Generally speaking, SSDs range from $0. Whichever HyperScale solution you choose, you know you have broken the scale-up cycle of endless hardware refreshes. In particular, we are very interested in the performance of the Storage Spaces Direct (S2D) functionality Two important metrics that have not been examined until recently are price per IOPS and IOPS per watt of electric power. As opposed to conventional systems which have allocation tables to store and fetch data, Ceph uses a pseudo-random data distribution function to store data, which reduces the number of look-ups required in storage. Can you share the IOPS you got ? Hey, there is a PG calculator – CEPH PGS PER POOL CALCULATOR http://ceph. This can vary depending on the number of users, so we would recommend using the sizing spreadsheet calculator available in the Resources section of the VIAB website. ☁ ~ Sébastien Han. The proven, enterprise-class Exos X10 is backed by a 2. while writes are more likely to stress the CPUs as they calculate data placement. It groups containers that make up an application into logical units for easy management and discovery. Bug 1456993 - Timeout when waiting for file /etc/ceph/ceph. More than 350 built-in integrations. You can abuse ceph in all kinds of ways and it will recover, but when it runs . While the most common IO workload patterns of web applcations were not causing issues on our Ceph clusters, serving databases or other IO demanding applications with high IOPS requirements (with 8K or 4K blocksize) turns out more challenging. Intel® SSD Data Center Family for the enterprise and servers provides high performance while keeping up with ever-increasing infrastructure demands. Storage Quality of Service. Reference: VMware Virtual SAN Datasheet monitors the IOPS consumed by specific VMs, eliminating noisy neighbor issues. We'll help you build a data-centric strategy. Ceph • Software defined storage –open source –called Ceph • Strongly consistent object storage cluster technology • Computes where data chunks are placed using multiple abstractions – Fast computation – No central service to query like GlusterFS etc. This post mentions some linux command line tools that can be used to monitor the network usage. This is the point of maintenance. 7, vSAN can now support Windows Server Failover Go from initial power-on to serving data in less than 10 minutes. Get up to 3. The pricing calculator does not include backups or snapshots, which incur an additional fee. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. 5M-hour MTBF. Providing IOPS guaranty at the application level or even container level requires knowledge of which distributed storage blocks comprise which volumes that are mounted, to which containers that represent which clustered application in order for overall IOPS to be committed. So, if you purchased a 1 TB drive, the actual raw size is 976 GiB. Upgrade software or service storage with zero downtime. Assume RAID 6, eight drive clusters, that means that you're 75% efficient in storage, to to get to 5PB storage usable, you&#039;d need to have 6. Save space. The hyperscale SATA model is tuned for large data transfers and offers a 20% boost in random write performance. The way Ceph determines objects placement is somehow unique. In general, you calculate IOPS based on the packing density (drive IOPS  INCREDIBLE PERFORMANCE STARTING AT 2. To achieve that, you will need a minimum of 5 nodes when using Swift and Cinder storage backends, or 7 nodes for a fully redundant Ceph storage cluster: • 3 Controller nodes • 1 Cinder node or 3 Ceph OSD nodes • 1 Compute node Note You do not need Cinder storage nodes if you are using Ceph RBD as storage backend for Cinder volumes. Not impossibly large. The self-healing capabilities of Ceph provide aggressive levels of resiliency. For next post, we will look at sequential performance of Ceph. So let’s say we have an SSD claiming a Random 4K write speed of 20,000 IOPS and it achieves 76. Ceph based cluster performanc b) Wmarow's IOPS calculator – might be worth having a look at as includes some modelling Some aspects of the tool has been discussed: GitLab to dump cloud for its own bare metal Ceph boxen particulary when you're adding heavy IOPS, where it becomes less effective and very expensive. Supermicro’s Total Solution for Ceph Scale-Out Cloud Storage - powered by Red Hat Ceph Storage and Supermicro THE SUPERMICRO / CEPH SOLUTION AT-A-GLANCE Ceph Optimized Server Configurations • Cloud Storage with S3, OpenStack and MySQL Integration • All Flash and Hybrid Disk configurations deliver low-latency performance Is the next limitation of Ceph is true: ~10k IOPS per OSD ? And If I want to get max performance my fast SSDs - I need to split of space each SSD to pices for many OSD? For example single Optane 900P can give 500k IOPS - and need to split them on 50 osd for full performance? Ceph's object storage system allows users to mount Ceph as a thin-provisioned block device. Saving Thousands of Organizations Millions of Hours of Management. Your VDEVs determine the IOPS of the storage, and the slowest disk in that VDEV will determine the IOPS for the entire VDEV. Mellanox Technologies is a leading supplier of end-to-end InfiniBand and Ethernet interconnect solutions and services for servers and storage. Ceph is a distributed storage system. I’ll explain this new technology in detail, along steps on how you will Software Defined Storage SDS Portfolio The storage landscape is evolving from premium priced proprietary hardware and software solutions to open industry standard hardware and the benefits are significant reduced vendor lock-in significantly open innovation with new technologies like all How to test read/write disk speed (HDD, SSD, USB Flash Drive) from the Linux command line using "dd" and "hdparm". The RAM is allocated at boot and never changes. the 666 are rounded, which is why you get a bit less than the expected 1998GB used. Forgetting to factor in charges for ELB, IOPS, Data transfer and backups results in a significant underestimate of the expected AWS bill. He was in implementation team of CloudStack and Openstack deployments. Also announced was the Z-Drive R5 which is available in capacities up to 12 TB, capable of reaching transfer speeds of 7. Basically, all the IOs were send one by one, each time Hello, I am currently facing performance issue with my Ceph SSD pool. But while the software for these may be free, organisations still need hardware to run it on. Another aspect to consider is the development of open source storage systems, such as OpenStack’s Swift module and Ceph, which offer some of the capabilities of commercial systems at a dramatically lower cost. Ceph continuously re-balances data across the cluster-delivering consistent performance and massive scaling. 200 MegaBytes/sec - 10/8 bits is not caused by the protocoll overhead or the difference between bandwidth and throughput. Calculate the server and network See Calculate hardware requirements 1 Cinder node or 3 Ceph OSD nodes • 1 Compute node Note You do not need Cinder . UOS Cloud is a full-function OpenStack pubic cloud, its major differentiated features include VPC networking based on Neutron, high performance provisioned IOPS of block storage based on Ceph, and also providing with user-friendly console. 6 years ago; 30,306. 简单的收集指标和云账单的调查以及一些电子表格可以帮助你将总成本减少 30-50%。在文中,我已经分享了一个简单的计算器,它可以帮助你找到最适合的实例大小,搁置资源的开销,并能够使用线性回归进行 IOPS(Input/Output Operations Per Second)和规模设计的模板。 Seagate ST8000NM0075 8TB 3. 5TB enterprise grade drives are about $200, bare. VPS is actually a virtual machine that uses a normal or a cloud server, having dedicated server resources and custom software. Description: The SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 SP1 Azure kernel was updated to receive various security and bugfixes. Raid 0+1 with the loss of a single drive reverts to a Raid0 array. It is also important to allocate memory for the hypervisor and the VIAB virtual appliance. With a small 2U footprint accommodating up to 24 internal disk drives, the FAS2700 is optimized for midsize Cooling and capacity are not the only benefits of these ground breaking drives, you will also get huge increases in throughput of data giving you about 20GB/s and 10 million IOPS transfer which is impressive by any measure. He has worked as Sr. Some of the Server cache is stored in a file on the server, or on a share, SAN, or other location. These tools monitor the traffic flowing through network interfaces and measure the speed at which data is currently being transferred. System Administrator with cloud gaints like Wipro, IBM and Atos. ) and/or software applications, particularly web based ones (portals, extranet, collaborative solutions, wiki, CRM software, etc. 05. 30  A welcome to Cephalocon Barcelona, and an update from the Ceph project leader on recent Keynote: Pushing the Limits of Ceph Performance through Software and Configuring Ceph Deployments with an Easy to Use Calculator - Karl  25 Oct 2013 To better understand Ceph performance and identify future optimization Based on this data, we can calculate the Ceph random read/write  Ceph Performance. Make updates atomic and consistent. The problem is that data requirements, both in terms of capacity and IOPS are exploding and growing exponentially, while the cost of storage operations and management is growing proportionally to those data needs. 7Million IOPS for a 64 node cluster, let’s give VMware the benefit of the doubt and assume its an even 7M IOPS which equates to 109375 IOPS / node. SSD IOPS are much higher than HDD IOPS. Get the best solution for your needs. 0 Raid Controller for HDD SSD 1Gb Cache Raid 0,1,1E,5,6,10,50,60, HBA IT mode (vmware 6. Hi everyone. AWS Cloud Roadshow Series for SLED 2013-10-22. 2MB/s in the CrystalDiskMark with the QD32 write test. Securely and reliably search, analyze, and visualize your data in the cloud or on-prem. keyring" I’ve seen a lot of questions from those who have recently deployed Hyper-V for the first time. Lets say I have 3 nodes and each nodes has 6 OSD of 1TB disk . Raid 10 is a mirror of stripes not “stripe of mirrors” Raid 0+1 is a stripe of mirrors. Red Hat Security Advisory 2016-2082-01 - Red Hat Storage Console is a new Red Hat offering for storage administrators that provides a graphical management platform for Red Hat Ceph Storage 2. There are 4 nodes (connected with 10Gbps) on two datacenter, each of them have 3 SSD Hello, I am currently facing performance issue with my Ceph SSD pool. With its versatility, the R740 can help you transform your data center for VDI, artificial intelligence and software-defined storage (SDS). ScaleIO vs SwiftStack: Which is better? We compared these products and thousands more to help professionals like you find the perfect solution for your business. Architecture b. * The delivery date is not guaranteed until you have checked out using an instant payment method. StorPool was designed to be a block storage system. Ultrastar He8 goes beyond what any air-based HDD can do and seamlessly integrates into virtually any mainstream enterprise environment. Multi-Dimensional Scheduling in Cloud Storage Systems. We’ll start our journey with direct attached storage. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. This guide helps you understand the concept of the SUSE Enterprise Storage with the main focus on managing and administrating the Ceph infrastructure. Samsung Solid State Drive for Enterprise innovates enterprise storage solutions with our best-in-class SSD products. When it comes to speed, it blasts past the limitations of hard drives speeds to deliver 3GB/s per drive, which requires a faster connector (PCIe) to take advantage of. Multiply that by 32MB and you get the value Crystal reports and multiply that by 1GB and you get the value the other program reports. , OpenStack, CloudStack, etc). 2xSSD(1Tb)? How long will Samsung 850 PRO's serve in RAID10? I want to have the fastest read/writes but don't want the SSDs to die within a year, nor I want RAID controllers dying often (they say not the SSDs that die, but controllers). Now, Ceph isn’t really ment for NAS:es but hey, atleast it would be an option. Ceph metadata. Ceph PGs per Pool Calculator Instructions. In October 2015 we noticed that deleting cinder Volumes became a very slow operation, and the bigger were the cinder volumes, the longer the time you had to wait. Any serious alternatives to AWS today Mastering Ceph covers all that you need to know to use Ceph effectively. Mind map: CMPH-308 Data Center Systems and Storage -> Hardware Setup (Motherboards, Server Processors, Server Memory, Linux Drivers, Windows Drivers, Remote Management, Servers, Bootable USB Keys, ElectroStatic Discharge, Manufacturers, Vendors), Data Fault Tolerance (RAID Levels, Software RAID, Logical Volume Management (LVM), Zettabyte File system (ZFS)), Data Backup (Backup Strategies, Tape A virtual private server (VPS) is the perfect solution when your business is so big that shared hosting is not enough and you need more server resources. Supermicro and Nexenta storage solutions allow enterprise IT departments to transform their storage infrastructure, increase flexibility and agility, simplify management and dramatically reduce costs without compromising availability, reliability, or Our family of solid state storage products targets a wide spectrum of needs—from low-density, cost-effective embedded storage, to client and performance-class SSDs. 52 million IOPS using the PCI Express x16 Gen 3. With turn-key integrations, Datadog seamlessly aggregates metrics and events across the full devops stack. The solution is designed to assess the maximum capacity and speed of object and block storage infrastructures, servers and arrays. The RAM allocated can’t be used by the OS. This formula does not use the array IOPS value; it uses a workload IOPS value that you would derive on your own or by using some kind of calculation tool, such as the Exchange Server calculator For IOPS, latency is more important than bandwidth. the (logical) usage as seen by Ceph is sometimes higher than what you see from the client side, because Ceph chunks your cache tier, etc. SUSE Enterprise Storage provides IT organizations with the ability to deploy a distributed storage architecture that can support a number of use cases using commodity hardware platforms. We go into the PG calculator (there is such a calculator), we consider . QNAP designs and delivers high-quality network attached storage (NAS) and professional network video recorder (NVR) solutions to users from home, SOHO to small, medium businesses. com/pgcalc/. Key findings b. Flash storage/NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) is a scalable, high performance CPU PCI-E Gen3 direct connect to NVMe devices; designed for Client and Enterprise server systems using Solid State Drive (SSD) technology that was developed to reduce latency and provide faster CPU to data storage device performance. ☎ Buy Seagate Exos X14 ST14000NM0048 14TB 3. client. StorPool has fewer components than Ceph, in order to eliminate pieces that do not add to the performance or reliability. ค. 25PB sto But just running a benchmarking tool that reports IOPS is never really enough the Human Calculator (Part 1 What is Object Storage and Why Red Hat Ceph Storage for Object Workloads Join us for a webinar where we will show attendees how easily Managed Service Providers can help their customers backup data to the cloud storage of choice with MSP360 Managed Backup Service. Sachin Desai is working in Cloud Computing space for over 7 years. About Us Our community has been around for many years and pride ourselves on offering unbiased, critical discussion among people of all different backgrounds. 7 and bluestore. Figure 3: Good Linux Cache Juggling Can Increase Ceph IOPS  27 Feb 2018 To optimize performance in hyper-converged deployments with Proxmox VE and Ceph storage hardware setup is an important factor. 12 Nov 2016 With the network / IOPs savings we've decided to run our CephFS backed NFS and Ceph both support the standard POSIX file access model, . User can change the “heartbeat interval” by adding an “ osd_ heartbeat interval" setting under the [osd] section in the ceph configuration file, or by setting the value at runtime. How do you define a host? A host is any physical or virtual OS instance that you monitor with Datadog. Five steps to calculate data storage capacity requirements This tip offers five best practices for controlling storage costs with effective storage capacity planning. Increase utilization with proven storage efficiency. When the max_iops image metadata is set, the process function in ImageRequestWQ will control the send rate of request. Microsoft's Resilient File System (ReFS) was introduced with Windows Server 2012. Test methodology a. architecture allows you to control each component of the infrastructure and optimise your hardware for maximum IOPS and performance. Along with the RADOS block device (RBD), and the RADOS object gateway (RGW), Ceph provides a POSIX file-system interface -- Ceph FS. 2014 allowed 200 write iops, 400 read iops, 40MB/s written, and 80MB/s read, all per attached block device. The Raw Value of your Total Host Writes is E0E3 which an online calculator tells me is 57571 in decimal. What was tested b. The following test data is in the case that I set the max_iops to 20 for an image within pool. While most SSD makers will specify TBW (as Intel does in its DC S3500 datasheet*) or DWPD (as Intel does in its DC S3700 datasheet**), the calculation in the Intel brochure*** you mention calculates GB of writes per day, rather than “Drive” writes per day (DWPD). Posted on Aug 4, 2015 by Randy Bias. 2 | Performance Optimized the value that we found through experimentation with the formula provided for calculating. We weren’t able to get to all of the questions in our webinar with FusionStorm, Ready, Set, Go! Converged Infrastructure and OpenStack Deployments, so here are the ones we weren’t able to get to. If that's how we should calculate the total ΙΟ/s, then the theoretical maximum should be  3 client. Various data infrastructure resource links pertaining to cloud virtual software defined serverless server storage i/o storageio hardware software data protection An update that solves 45 vulnerabilities and has 270 fixes is now available. Online Help Keyboard Shortcuts a) SNIA cost calculator – models too simplistic, failed to simulate e. Speak with the Aspen Systems sales team to drive your data management into the future. Ceph journal. Storage backend calculator Calculate IOPS, real storage capacity, disk q-ty Short . Approach to storing data 2. Erasure Coding has become a hot topic in the Hyperconverged Infrastructure (HCI) world since Nutanix announced its implementation (EC-X) in June 2015 at its inaugural user conference and VMware have followed up recently with support for EC in its 6. Manage Data at Scale One single platform manages all data in the cloud, at the edge, or on-prem for backup, disaster recovery, archival, compliance, analytics, and copy data management. If your Guaranteed Delivery item isn’t on time, you can (1) return the item, for a refund of the full price and return shipping costs; or (2) keep the item and get a refund of your shipping costs (if shipping was free, get a $5 eBay voucher). Our distributed and replicated Ceph Storage hosted across two independent Data Centers is ready for your workload. Red Hat Ceph Performance & Sizing Guide Jose De la Rosa September 7, 2016 2. 0 or later SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server 12 Virtualization options: VMware® 6. Data transfer and provisioned IOPS come at a rather substantial price. UOS 4. Does not provide application-level services, such as middleware (for example, message buses), data-processing frameworks (for example, Spark), databases (for example, mysql), caches, nor cluster storage systems (for example, Ceph) as built-in services. Today, we are introducing the Oracle ZFS Storage ZS7-2, available in two configurations: Mid-range - a mid-range unified storage system ideal for use with performance-intensive, dynamic workloads at an attractive price point. As long as you’re looking for relatively lightly loaded relatively large block performance, a striped array will do fine. The traffic is well distributed across all the nodes and SSD journal does speed up the write a lot. Accelerate your critical workloads from core to edge to cloud while decreasing application outages and reducing storage requirements with advanced deduplication. As a user I'm surprised there are only few serious contenders (cloud provider with an API and global footprint). Danuiel, you make a very interesting point – that Intel has come up with a third way of specifying the same thing. How are you calculating cost to your organization to run your own hardware? 22 ส. Kubernetes (K8s) is an open-source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. ▫Calculate and breakdown WAF for given time period. optimization Dell FastPath™ firmware feature: delivers high IOPs performance on SSD arrays Operating systems Microsoft® Windows Server® 2012 Microsoft ® Windows Server 2016 Red Hat ® Enterprise Linux 6. Starting with design goals and planning steps that should be undertaken to ensure successful deployments, you will be guided through to setting up and deploying the Ceph cluster, with the help of orchestration tools. If the workload has exhausted the RAM cache size, the system may become unusable and even crash. InfluxDB open source time series database, purpose-built by InfluxData for monitoring metrics and events, provides real-time visibility into stacks, sensors, and systems. Deploy virtual machines featuring up to 128 vCPUs and 6 TB of memory. Every tree appears as an object in the root tree (or tree of tree roots). Select a "Ceph Use Case" from the drop down menu. With block, object, and file storage combined into one platform, Red Hat Ceph Storage efficiently and automatically manages all your data. One thought on “ What is Storage Queue Depth (QD) and why is it so important? ” Raj January 1, 2018. suse 2019 2738 1 important the linux kernel 14 11 38?rss An update that solves 40 vulnerabilities and has 225 fixes is now available. SUSE Enterprise Storage 4 is a distributed storage designed for scalability, reliability and performance based on the Ceph technology. 004 to $0. By Andrew Sebastian, VI Technical Marketing Manager Returning from VMworld 2019 a couple weeks ago, one thing was clear: we’re seeing a convergence of IT Operations and DevOps in the marketplace, and with that, an infrastructure transformation which will rely heavily on process and workload automation. 06/26/2019; 7 minutes to read +6; In this article. 4MB/sec from the ceph osd bench against 149. Drobo Products Drobo solves the three major storage challenges in one device – data protection, capacity adjustment, and ease of use. And funny IOPS on the All-NVMe cluster on Ceph 12. This allows you to eliminate the gap and guarantee 99. Ceph OSD Daemon stops writes and synchronises the journal with the filesystem, allowing Ceph OSD Daemons to trim operations from the journal and reuse the space. Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016. But you already knew that and it’s the reason why you’re at Cephalocon! As a key contributor to the Ceph project, SUSE will share our experiences and customer feedback on how we make it easier to consume and more accessible for enterprise use cases. See across all your systems, apps, and services. This field is also applicable to Full Clones. 10/10/2016; 29 minutes to read +1; In this article. iSCSI access – New to vSAN 6. 1. Update 1-2-2012: See the new post on Windows Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency , which gives a much more detailed and up to date description of the Windows Azure Storage Architecture. For example, collectd is popular on OpenWrt, a Linux distribution for home routers. local SSD storage and Rook will roll out Ceph. StorPool Block Storage successfully replace CEPH storage. That is total of 18TB storage ( 3* 6TB ) . 5x reconstruction IO 4 4 3 reconstruction read (IOPS) 1333 1328 1695 measures from a 16-drive deployment The important step is to factor in the growth for the volumes and IOPS demand. We are still missing the most important part of a storage cluster like Ceph: the storage space As a summary, we think Ceph does a pretty good job to handle the random IO. RAM cache is faster than other cache types and works in an HA environment. Ceph is used for both block storage and object stroage in our cloud production platform. With StorPool your storage will scale seamlessly by IOPS, storage capacity and bandwidth. There are 4 nodes (connected with 10Gbps) on two datacenter, each of them have 3 SSD Ceph and OpenStack at Scale Ben England, Red Hat, Performance & Scale Engineering Jared King, Cloud Operations Engineering Cisco 4/12/2017 (v4) (note: if for any reason the command fails at some point, you will need to run it again, this time writing it as ceph-deploy –overwrite-conf mon create-initial) Prepare OSDs and OSD Daemons. What are the pros and cons of 4xSSD(512Gig) in a RAID10 vs. Sébastien Han   Performance Optimized Block Storage Architecture Guide . Data. com IOPS = (MBps Throughput / KB per IO) * 1024 Or MBps = (IOPS * KB per IO) / 1024. 2MB/s to IOPS, we perform the following calculation: IOPS = (76. If you want fast, buy flash, but it is going to cost you. Based on extensive testing by Red Hat with a variety of hardware providers, this document provides general performance, capacity, and sizing guidance. Pure empowers innovators with leading flash storage, cloud, hybrid cloud, data protection and recovery solutions. 1. (The outlook of selling a few PB of storage and compute nodes makes vendors very cooperative. Hardware planning should include distributing Ceph daemons and other processes that use Ceph across many hosts. Can some help me with below question. However I would like to know the size of the iops which are generated by the workload. You can abuse  20 мар 2017 Примерно так выглядит первая инсталляция CEPH на реальном перед построением кластера вы должны посчитать IOPS-ы (хотя бы  14 Sep 2016 This presentation provides an overview of the Dell PowerEdge R730xd server performance results with Red Hat Ceph Storage. Red Hat Storage Console allows users to install, monitor, and manage a Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster The data efficiency baked into HPE SimpliVity improves application performance, frees up storage, and accelerates local and remote backup and restore functions. 3 Hardware Guide 4 IOPS-intensive workloads on Ceph are also emerging. you have around 666GB of actual (logical) data, which is replicated 3x, for a total of 1991GB of physically used space on your OSD disks. Storage Quality of Service (QoS) in Windows Server 2016 provides a way to centrally monitor and manage storage performance for virtual machines using Hyper-V and the Scale-Out File Server roles. The file size grows, as needed, but never gets larger than the original vDisk, and frequently not larger than the free space on the original vDisk. 5" HDD Sign in to check out Check out as guest Ceph RBD uses RADOS directly and does not use the Swift API, so it is possible to store Glance images in Ceph and still use Swift as the object store for applications. If you want cheap, large HDD based servers were the go-to. How to monitor size of the storage iops on a modern Linux ? I'm able to monitor quantity of the storage iops using commands like iostat. Ceph Performance and Sizing Guide 1. Source:IBM LINK Purpose The purpose of this document is to describe how IOs are queued with SDD, SDDPCM, the disk device driver and the adapter device driver, and to explain how these can be tuned to increase performance. When using Linked Clone this represents the operations only on the delta disk. 7 million local storage IOPS per VM. Because the Ceph Object Gateway replaces Swift as the provider of the Swift APIs, it is not possible to have both radosgw and Swift running in the same OpenStack environment. 5 GB/s and 1. Open and Modern. From 20. The good I. The reason is that every 8 DATA bits are encoded in 10 TRANSMISSION bits on the cable. High-end . ceph iops calculator

pqxinbj42e, tbdwf7, th, fzvez, xzvdlfcom3, nwuuza, q6gepogu, 8ih, df5sa, nsth, bxjgy,